Psychologists, as well as other therapists and students, often express themselves in clinical settings using psychoanalytically derived terminology. Informing and enhancing therapist selfawareness through play. Freud realized that transference is universal, and therefore could occur in the analyst as well. Dealing with transference in counselling counselling. Carl jung, for example, sees the countertransference as quite natural and believes that the analyst. Carl rogers held that the personcentred approach to counselling is not so much a way of doing as a way of being. Jane williams still gets a lump in her throat when she thinks about the nine months she spent counseling a young mother dying of breast cancer. At times, this projection can be considered inappropriate. Transference, countertransference and projection origin of the concept of transference viennese psychoanalyst sigmund freud first identified the phenomenon of transference in 1901, when he worked with a client called dora. Although most psychologists are trained to maintain boundaries with their clients to. Transference, countertransference, sexual identity.
Indeed, the indiscriminate use of these terms has led to their being considered to be, to some. A countertheory of transference counseling psychology. A particular case of projection, used to describe the unconscious emotional response of the analyst to the analysand in a therapeutic relationship. Just as transference is the concept of a client redirect feelings meant for others onto the therapist, countertransference is the reaction to a clients transference, in which the counselor projects his or her feelings unconsciously onto the client. Understanding transference and countertransference. Carl rogers drew heavily from existential concepts, especially as they apply to. Exponents of the psychodynamic talking therapies suggest that transference is the process that occurs within the context of the therapeutic relationship as the client interacts with the therapist and visaversa counter transference. As freud began to give attention to countertransference, he viewed it as responsive or reflexive rather than as. The concept of countertransference in the writings of carl. Purpose to provide an introductory text for nurses new to these concepts. A transference is answered by a countertransference from the analyst when it projects a content of which he is unconscious but which nevertheless exists in him. Transference is a very useful word from psychoanalysis which describes the process whereby we react to situations in the present according to a pattern laid down in the past, usually in childhood. John shlien a student, friend and colleague of carl rogers have challenged the existence andor importance of transference in psychotherapy, it is generally held to be a useful concept across modalities.
Although rogers had always attached great importance to the therapists authenticity. Transference and countertransference outside psychoanalysis. Topic the utility of transference and countertransference in professional nursing relationships. Transference and countertransference working with children. When transference attitudes, or a transference relationship. It is where the individual transfers feelings and attitudes from a person or situation in the past on. Countertransference is an excellent reminder that clinicians are human beings with feelings. Transference and countertransference the concepts of transference and countertransference, together with that of transference neurosis, properly belong to the theory and practice of psychoanalysis. Both the literature and our experience underscore the importance of careful and open examination of both transference and countertransference issues in cbt and their necessary incorporation in the complete manage. Can you tell us your view of transference dr rogers. Resistancetransferencecountertransference exchanges reveal the childs or. Transference is never impartial it is either positive or negative.
As a coach i get a lot of questions on the differences between these two topics. In psychoanalytic theory, countertransference occurs when the therapist begins to project his own unresolved conflicts onto the client. However, carl rogers himself refers to transference in his writing, stating that transferential attitudes are evident in the context of personcentred counselling. Countertransference, sometimes written as countertransference, refers to the situation where a therapist associates qualities of his or her client with qualities of someone the therapist knew or knows. The therapist becomes aware of the emotions awakened in her or him by the client. Transference and countertransference in nondirective psychotherapy. Transference and countertransference in counselling. Carl rogers 19021987 was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of abraham maslow. Personcentred therapy, based on the ideas of the eminent psychotherapist carl rogers, is widely practised in the uk and throughout. Pdf exploring the similarities and differences between person. Introduction the purpose of this paper is to compare personcentred therapy, formulated by carl rogers, with analytical psychotherapy, originated by carl gustav jung. Countertransference definition of countertransference by.
In the psychology of the transference, carl jung states that within the. Transference and countertransference a personcentred perspective although some personcentred therapists e. Transference is the projection of unconscious contents. Transference, countertransference and finding a good. Transference is a psychology term used to describe a phenomenon in which an individual redirects emotions and feelings, often unconsciously. Humera quddoos explains why transference provides a rich and fertile field for therapeutic work. Jungs studies in word association 1906 provided evidence for and referred to freuds concept of transference, published the previous year. Transference and counter transference are not the easiest of concepts to understand and many new coaches find these difficult the term transference originates from psychodynamic therapy where it is defined as a clients unconscious conflicts that can cause problems in everyday life. Finally, similarities and differences between the two. Many social workers confuse the definitions of transference and countertransference and assume both warrant the same response. Initially, this is not likely to be a cognitive process, as the therapist reacts to cues in the client that signal something is different. Stolorows concept of transference has so little to do with the classic freudian definition it really ought to be called something else. The theories of transference, counter transference and the therapeutic relationship.
In 1912 jung noted that the analysands perception of the analysts more mature personality forms an. In hindsight, he realised that the reason she had not completed treatment with him was that he had failed to recognise that she saw him. Transference and countertransference are two fundamental terms in psychoanalysis. However, rogers 1959 added that for a person to grow, they need an environment that provides them with genuineness openness and selfdisclosure, acceptance being seen with unconditional positive regard, and empathy being listened to and understood. Both transference and countertransference can be evident in any clienttherapist relationship, but are especially important in working with children because of a common instinct among adults to protect and nurture the young. To many, this assertion will seem an exaggeration, an outrage, an indictment. The best way to characterize it is a form of empathy, similar to that described by carl rogers.
Jung had a natural intuitive understanding of the transference and countertransference, his lack of a coherent method and clinical technique for working with transference and his ambivalence and mercurial attitude to matters of method, have, in the words of therapist and jungian scholar jan wiener, sometimes left jungians who are eager to hone. In sigmund freud s original formulations they were inextricably intertwined with his propositions about the determinants of development and neuroses, and they have very limited meaning outside that framework. The best sleeping position for back pain, neck pain, and sciatica tips from a physical therapist duration. Risk management strategies for preventing sexual misconduct and. What do transference and counter transference mean. They are foundational in clinical practice and while they are two different concepts, transference and countertransference are clearly inseparable. As well discuss throughout this blog, transference and countertransference require very different actions both on the exam and in real. Transference and countertransference are big words, but theyre relatively simple concepts that explain a lot of what happens in our daily interactions with people, including our family, friends and even the strangers we talk to at the coffee shop and grocery store.
Moreover transference and countertransference are not accepted by all schools of psychoanalysis, presumably because of. A therapists attunement to their own countertransference is nearly as critical as. According to rogers, although transference attitudes may develop, the combination of the timelimited nature of his form of counseling and the. Jung was the first analyst to strategically employ countertransference as a beneficial, therapeutic technique sedgwick, 1994. Transference and countertransference counselling tutor. First, the basic concepts of these two approaches will be summarized, and then both psychotherapists theories will be examined in greater detail. In the so called nondirective or clientcentered psychotherapy, systematically developed by carl. He did not write much about this, except to say that countertransference could interfere with. But utilizing the transference and counter transference makes for rewarding and powerful therapy. Freud, in 1910, was the first to discuss this topic. Patterson chapter 9 incounseling and psychotherapy. The countertransference definition can be thought of as the clinicians response to a clients transference.
Preeminent psychoanalyst otto kernberg doesnt back down in this series of three diagnostic transferencefocused psychotherapy tfp sessions with a paranoid client struggling with suicidal depression after being left by his girlfriend. Transference, countertransference and finding a good therapist dr. Transference is a fiction, invented and maintained by the therapist to protect himself from the. As transference has been applied to all the reactions of the patient tothe analyst, so countertransference has been used to include all reactions of the analyst to the patient. The patientanalyst interaction turns into in a space where the unconscious is allowed to circulate as freely as.
It usually concerns feelings from a primary relationship during childhood. Shlien, harvard university transference is a fiction, invented and maintained by the therapist to protect himself from the consequences of his own behavior. Just as a client may experience transference, so too can a therapist. Carl rogers described the importance of upr in his paper, the necessary and. A survey of certain aspects of his thought and their development as they relate to the meaning of countertransference julian h. Transference does find some limited place in carl rogerss clientcentered counseling, the progenitor of many modern approaches. Countertransference is when you as the clinician transfer your feelings onto your client. Concerning transference, countertransference, and other psychoanalyticallydeveloped concepts from a clientpersoncentered perspective. Understanding transference and countertransference is crucial to a healthy therapeutic relationship. Transference of the clients conflicts onto the therapist is a normal part of psychodynamic therapy. An overview of countertransference psychology today. Transference and countertransference in counseling sex. In psychoanalytic theory, transference occurs when a client projects feelings about someone else, particularly someone encountered in childhood, onto her therapist. Working in the hereandnow of the therapeutic relationship requires therapists to be fully engaged, and take risks in revealing themselves.
Countertransference can be used as an open window into the interpersonal relations of the patient. Rogers and his collaborators, the therapists approach can be. Transference and countertransference exploring your mind. Frequently spoken about in reference to the therapeutic relationship, the classic example of sexual transference is falling in love with ones therapist. Congruence and countertransference similarities and. However, like transference, countertransference has been variously described and defined 12, 15, 19, 31, 39, 44. Because the concept of transference was first used in psychodynamic therapy, some people feel it has no place in the personcentred approach. The transference is actually a microcosm of the patients total psychological life, and the analysis of the transference provides a focal point around which the patterns dominating his existence as a whole can be clarified, understood, and thereby transformed. For jung, the transference should be lived through without the need for interpretation and the countertransference is simply an inevitable interaction with it. The theories of transference, counter transference and the. Carl jung, for example, sees the countertransference as quite natural and believes that the analyst should be at liberty to share his thoughts and feelings with the patient. Transferencecountertransference analytical psychology. How countertransference is used in therapy can make it either helpful or problematic.
Khans model is more heterogeneous as he assimilates approaches as diverse as those of carl rogers, heinze kohut and merton gill. Abstract transference and countertransference, along with the art of interpretation and the meeting of resistances, are fundamental concepts within psychoanalysis. The clients wrenching story of her husbands initial. But utilizing the transference and countertransference makes for rewarding and powerful therapy.
Ubertragung is a theoretical phenomenon characterized by. Carl rogers has dealt with the subject succinctly, in about twenty pages 1951, pp. The concept of countertransference in the writings of carl r. The patientanalyst interaction turns into in a space where the unconscious is allowed to circulate as freely as possible.783 50 1502 656 242 944 1191 803 1354 130 982 231 679 66 1141 1260 951 518 1365 1194 67 775 1030 818 557 647 221 390 71 1298 615 972 46 1335 691 473 447 3 175 425 329